Solid State

Types of Solids

(a) Crystalline solids: In a single crystal the regularity of arrangement of the pattern extends throughout the solid and all points are completely equivalent.

(b) Amorphous solids: An amorphous solid differs from a crystalline substance in being without any shape of its own and has a completely random particle arrangements, i.e. no regular arrangement. Example: Glass, Plastic

Crystalline solid:

1. The constituent particles are arranged in a regular fashion containing short range as well as long range order.

2. They have sharp melting point

3. They are anisotropic i.e., properties like electrical conductivity, thermal expansion, etc have different values is different direction.

4. They undergo a cleavage.

(figure 1a)

Amorphous solid :

1. The constituent particles are not arranged in any regular fashion. There may be at the most some short range order only.

2. They melt over a range of temperature.

3. They are isotropic i.e., properties like electrical conductivity, thermal expansion, etc have same value in different directions

4. They undergo an irregular cut

(figure 1b)

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