## What is Pseudo Force ?

Ans : Pseudo Force: It is an imaginary force which is recognized only by a non-inertial observer to explain the physical situation according to Newton’s law The magnitude of this force F is equal to the product of the mass m of the object and acceleration a of the frame of reference. The direction of the force is opposite to the direction of acceleration.
F = – ma

## What is the Cause of Heating effect of current ?

Ans:  When a battery is connected to the ends of a conductor, an electric field is setup in the conductor. The free electrons of the conductor get accelerated in a direction opposite to the direction of the electric field.  They suffer frequent collisions with the positive ions and atoms of the conductor. The average kinetic    energy of vibrations of the ions and atoms is increased. This will raise the temperature of the conductor.

## What is the heating effect of electric current ?

Ans : When an electric current is passed through a conducting wire, the electrical energy is converted into heat energy. This effect of electric current is called heating effect of electric current. It is an irreversible process.   Heat produced does not depend upon the direction of current.

## What is the Internal Resistance of the cell ?

Ans:  The opposition offered by the electrolyte of the cell to the flow of electric current through it is called internal resistance of the cell. It is denoted by ‘ r ‘

Internal Resistance depends on

(1)  Distance between electrodes (r ∝ d)

(2)  Area of electrodes ( dipped in electrolyte) (r ∝ 1/A)

(3)  Temperature of electrolyte.