Electric charge → Electric charge is an intrinsic characteristics of fundamental particle. The cause of charging is actual transfer of electrons from one material to the other.
(1) Charge is scalar which represent excess or deficiency of electrons.
(2) Charge is always associated with mass. Charge cannot exist without mass though mass can exist without charge.
(3) Charge is conserved. So in an isolated system total charge does not change with time.
(4) Charge is quantised. So charge can have only discrete values rather than continuous value. The smallest charge that can exists in nature is the charge of an electron.
(5) Charge is conserved. The total charge in an isolated system does not change through individual charge may change i.e. charge on neither be created nor destroyed.
(6) Similar charges repel each other while dissimilars attract each other.
(7) Charge is transferable. If a charged body is put in contact with an uncharged body, charge gained by the uncharged body is always lesser than initial charge present on a charged body and the process of charge transfer is called conduction.
(8) Charge differs from mass
(a) In SI units charge is a derived physical quantity while mass is fundamental.
(b) Charge is always conserved but mass not.