Q: The Kirchholff’s first law ( âˆ‘i = 0)Â and second law ( âˆ‘iR = âˆ‘E) . Where the symbols have their usual meanings, are

respectively based on-

(A) Conservation of charge, conservation of momentum

(B) Conservation of energy, conservation of charge

(C) Conservation of momentum, conservation of charge

(D) Conservation of charge, conservation of energy

**Solution :** Kirchhoff’s 1st law or KCL states that the algebraic sum of current meeting at any junction is equal to zero. In other words, we can say that “the sum of all the currents directed towards a junction in a circuit is equal to the sum of all the currents directed away from that junction.” Thus, no charge has been accumulated at any junction ie,charge is conserved, and hence, we can say that KCL(âˆ‘i = 0) is based on conservation of charge.

Kirchhoff’s IInd law or KVL states that algebraic sum of changes in potential around any closed resistor loop must be zero. In

other words, ” around any closed loop, voltage drops are equal to voltages rises “.No energy is gained or lost in circulating a

charge around a loop, thus, we can say that KVL is based on conservation of energy .

Correct Option is (D)